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Copyright is a form of intellectual property that is based on a person’s skill and labour in creating a ‘copyright work’. Copyright gives the creator of an original work the exclusive right to reproduce the work, use it commercially and be attributed as its creator.
Copyright does not protect information or ideas, but only the expression of information and ideas. For instance, today’s forecasted maximum temperature is not protected by copyright, but the script of a weather report, or a newspaper graphic containing this information might be protected.
Only certain types of expression are protected by copyright. These include: artistic works such as paintings or blueprints, literary works such as novels, song lyrics or computer programs, sound and video recordings and even broadcasts.
Unlike patents and trade marks, or even copyright law in some other countries, there is no need to register copyright in Australia; the author’s rights are created whenever an idea is expressed in a “material form”, for example by:
Copyright law in Australia is governed by the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), which applies to any protected work that is first published in Australia or where the author of the copyright is an Australian citizen. However, in some circumstances, through international treaties, Australian copyright law may also apply to acts done in Australia which relate to copyright created overseas.
The many rights contained within the Copyright Act are often divided into two separate bundles: ‘economic rights’ and ‘moral rights’. Economic rights can be bought, sold and licensed by original owners of the copyright, while moral rights always lie with the original creator and cannot be transferred to others.
The Copyright Act gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to do, or authorise the doing of, particular things with the protected work or matter. These include:
Most commercial dealings with copyright matter deals with these economic rights. Read more about the infringement of economic copyrights.
Moral rights are special personal rights that are owned by the creator of any copyright matter. These rights include:
Moral rights cannot be assigned or sold to any other person and cannot be owned by a company. Most moral rights last for the duration of the copyright, with the exception of the author's right of integrity (the right to prevent derogatory treatment of a copyright work), which lasts only for the author's lifetime.
Performers' rights are similar to moral rights and are owned by performers of copyright works in performances such as sound recordings, cinematograph films, and dramatic works. "Performers" include actors, singers, musicians, and, in some cases, conductors, but do not include companies.
Similarly to moral rights, performers have the right to attribution of their performance, the right to prevent false attribution, and the right of integrity of performership (the right to prevent derogatory treatment of their performance).
Copyright is usually first owned by the author, or the creator of the copyright work. An important exception is copyright matter created by an employee within the scope of their employment. In these circumstances the copyright will be owned by the employer, unless the employment agreement states otherwise.
Independent contractors will usually own the copyright in any work that they create unless agreed otherwise.
In many circumstances it is possible for the author to license, sell or assign their copyright (except for moral rights) to another person or company, who can then treat the copyright as if it was their own. Find out more about copyright licencing services.
Under the Copyright Act, copyright may last for up to 70 years after the death of the author, however, different time limits apply in relation to different types of copyright, so it is always important to seek legal advice about this.
Given that copyright can exist in relation to three-dimensional objects, there is some overlap between copyright law and design law in Australia.
The Copyright Act provides that copyright in three-dimensional works will not be infringed in some circumstances. The legislation in relation to these issues is quite complex, however in some instances the solution may be to register an Australian design instead. At Davies Collison Cave we can assist you with the registration of designs and provide advice regarding whether Australian copyright or designs legislation will apply. For more information regarding design registration in Australia click here.